Atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

1. Monthly measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa began in March 1958. The average CO2 concentration for that month was 315.71 ppm. In 2020 the March monthly average value was 414.51 ppm. Calculate the total increase in March concentration (in ppm) from 1958-2020 (62 years). Also calculate the average increase per year. 2. The figure below shows how the mean (average) annual global temperature (for both land and ocean) has changed from 1880 to 2020. It shows temperature anomalies relative to the 30-year average for 1951-1980. Positive annual global temperature anomalies indicate that year was warmer than the 1951-1980 average while negative annual global temperature anomalies indicate that year was cooler than the 1951-1980 average. The original data (used to create the figure) can be accessed here:https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/graph_da… . Use the annual mean data (2nd column of table: asNo_Smoothing”) to help answer the following questions. a) When did the warmest year on record occur? What was the anomaly value? b) When did the next three warmest years occur? Give their respective anomaly values as well. c) When was the most recent year that the average annual global temperature was below the 1951-1980 average? d) Calculate how much the global average temperature increased from 1980 to 2020 (40 years). Then convert this increase to °F (remember that it represents a change in temperature). Now the global average temperature increased by 1.29°C (2.32°F) from 1920 to 2020. Comment on the significance of your finding comparing it to the overall 100 year temperature increase. 3. Note that global temperature decreased from 1991 to 1992 and stayed constant from 1992 to 1993 before increasing again. What natural occurrence was responsible for the decrease from 1991 to 1992? 4. September Arctic sea ice extent (shown in the figure below) has been continuously measured since 1979. a) Which two years had the two highest sea ice extents? Provide the values of area as well. b) Which two years had the two lowest sea ice extents? Provide the values of area as well. c) Give a prediction for the year when September Arctic sea ice extent will drop below 1.0 million square kilometers. 5. 5 of the 9 biggest snowstorms in New York City recorded history (going back to 1869) have occurred within the past 15 years (http://www.weather2000.com/NY_Snowstorms.html). A friend says this proves that global warming is not real. In 4-6 sentences respond to your friends’ comment (hint: think about the difference between weather and climate).

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