Buy Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology

Buy Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology
Buy Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology
Questions 1−5
1. A
2. D
3. F
4. A
5. H
Learning objective: Describe the metabolism of catecholamines.
6. A Dopam ine β-hydroxylase is the enzym e that catalyzes the
conversion of dopam ine into norepinephrine. Because the
enzym e is lacking, plasm a levels of norepinephrine w ill be
very low.
B Plasm a levels of dopam ine would be high, not low.
C Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine in the
adrenal m edulla. Because plasm a levels of norepinephrine are
low, plasm a levels of epinephrine w ill also be low, not high.
D Norm etanephrine is a urinary m etabolite of norepinephrine. Because plasm a levels of norepinephrine are low,
norm etanephrine w ill also be low, not high.
E Hom ovanillic acid is the m ain urinary m etabolite of dopam ine. Because plasm a levels of dopam ine are high, hom ovanillic acid w ill also be high, not low.
Learning objective: Identify the enzyme that controls the ratelimiting step in norepinephrine biosynthesis.
7. C The hydroxylation of tyrosine to dopa is the rate-lim iting
step in norepinephrine biosynthesis and is catalyzed by the
enzym e tyrosine hydroxylase. The inhibition of this enzym e
w ill therefore cause a big reduction in biosynthesis of the
nal product.
A Arom atic l-am ino acid decarboxylase transform s dopa
into dopam ine.
B Dopam ine-β-hydroxylase transform s dopam ine into
Buy Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology
D Phenylethanolam ine m ethyltransferase transform s norepinephrine into epinephrine.
E Monoam ine oxidase transform s norepinephrine and epinephrine into dihydroxym andelic acid and dopam ine into
dihydroxyphenylacetic acid.
Learning objective: Explain the autonomic activation that follows
8. D The described symptom s are m ost likely due to sympathetic activation that occurs any tim e signi cant hypoglycem ia is present. In insulin-dependent diabetics, hypoglycem ia
is com m on after physical exercise that increases sugar m etabolism , as in the present case. Sym pathetic activation includes
an increased ring of preganglionic sym pathetic neurons,
w hich in turn w ill increase ring in postganglionic sympathetic neurons and epinephrine secretion from the adrenal
m edulla.
A−C, E These neurons are not involved in sym pathetic
Learning objective: Identify the vessels where autonomic receptors are primarily α1 adrenergic.
9. E The vascular system has both α1 and β2 receptors. Alpha-1
receptors predom inate in the vessels of the skin and the
gastrointestinal and genitourinary system s. Beta-2 receptors
predom inate in the vessels of skeletal m uscle and liver. Parasym pathetic receptors are not w idely represented in the vascular system .
A Autonom ic receptors in the bronchial m uscle are prim arily M3 and β2.
B Autonom ic receptors in the sphincter m uscle of the iris
are prim arily M3.
C Autonom ic receptors in the atrioventricular node are
prim arily M2 and β1.
D Autonom ic receptors in Purkinje bers are prim arily β1.
Learning objective: Describe the e ects of the activation of peripheral postsynaptic β1 receptors.
10. D Beta-1 receptors are abundant in juxtaglom erular cells, and
the activation of these receptors increases renin secretion.
A Bronchodilation is due m ainly to activation of bronchial
β2 receptors.
B Uterine relaxation is due m ainly to activation of uterine
β2 receptors.
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