Contribution of innate immune system

Please answer the multiple choice questions by highlighting the correct answer. This is the easiest to grade. Note that the multiple choice questions may have more than one correct answer that must be highlighted. Multiple choice and short answer questions are worth 2 points each; the worksheet is worth a total of 50 points.

1. Which of the following contribute to our innate immune system:

a. skin

b. antimicrobial peptides

c. cilia on cells in the mucosal lining of the lung

d. erythrocytes

e. neutrophils

2. Which type of cells recognize pathogens using receptors that are formed by recombination of specific gene segments during the cell’s development:

a. macrophages

b. mast cells

c. TH cells

d. B cells

e. TC cells

3. Which of the following are signs of acute subcutaneous inflammation:

a. cool damp skin

b. pain

c. bleeding

d. hot raised red areas on the skin

e. swelling

4. Which of the following are sub-types of TH cells:

a. CTL

b. TH2

c. plasma cells

d. natural killer cells

e. TH1

5. Which of these are attributes of the innate immune system:

a. continuous presence (always there)

b. memory

c. specific response directed against a single shape

d. general response elicited by recognition of a macromolecule unique to pathogens

e. earliest immune response

6. What interactions do naïve TH cells have with dendritic cells (T cells proteins on the left):

a. surface antibody with CD8

b. TCR with B7

c. TCR with MCH II-antigen complex

d. CD28 with B7

e. CD4 with MHC II

7. Which of the following are true about B cells:

a. they are part of the innate immune system

b. they detect antigens using antibodies attached to the B cell surface

c. they phagocytose opsonized bacteria

d. they differentiate into plasma cells

e. Each B cell has an surface antibody that is unique to that B cell and its progeny

8. Which statements are true about opsonization:

a. it increases phagocytosis of bacteria

b. it works only if T cells are present

c. it requires antimicrobial peptides to poke holes in bacterial membranes

d. the process of opsonization involves molecules of the immune system binding to bacterial surfaces

e. it means “to make tasty”

8. Which of the following are considered to be “inflammatory cytokines”: a. MAP kinase

b. IL-1 (and Il-1b)

c. IL-6

d. NF-kB

e. TNF-a

9. PAMPS are:

a. macromolecules found on or in pathogen but not human cells

b. recognized by PRRs

c. molecules released by damaged cells

d. inflammatory cytokines

e. substances that begin the induced innate response

10. TLRs are:

a. a type of PRR b.

a type of PAMP

c. part of the inflammasome

d. conserved receptors involved in innate immunity in fruit flies and humans

e. on the surface of sentinel cells in extracellular tissue

11. When a sentinel macrophage detects a pathogen it starts a signaling pathway. Which of the following proteins participate in that pathway:

a. NF-kB

b. MAP kinase

c. C9

d. MyD88

e. CD8

12. Which of the following are traits of NOD-like receptors (NLRs):

a. some NLRs specifically bind PAMPS

b. Ligand binding sites of NLRs are located on the outside of the cell

c. some NLRs are components of the inflammasome

d. some NLRs specifically bind TNF-a

e. some NLRs specifically bind DAMPS

13. IL-1 and TNF-a signaling can cause which of the following effects:

a. production of Nitric Oxide causing vasodilation

b. production of CO2 resulting in hyperventilation

c. assembly of the membrane attack complex

c. increased vascular permeability

e. activation of bradykinin

14. Which of the following are features of the inflammasome:

a. it cleaves IL-1 into IL-1b.

b. it results in amplification of the inflammatory response

c. some inflammasome components bind to TLRs

d. activation of the inflammasome causes cell lysis

e. it works in association with TLR signaling paths

15. Which of the following proteins are part of the Membrane Attack Complex:

a. C9

b. C8

c. C3

d. C5

e. C2

16. Which of the following are functions of the complement system:

a. cleavage of IL-1

b. increased inflammation

c. fever

d. opsonization of pathogens

e. cell lysis

17. For each of the complement functions you chose in the previous question please name at least one component of the complement system that mediates that function.

18. Which of the following is true about macrophages:

a. they are phagocytes

b. they reside in extracellular tissue

c. they have TLR on their surface

d. they are derived from the hematopoietic stem cell e. they can secrete inflammatory cytokines.

19. Name three barriers of the innate immune system (these can be anatomical physiological or biochemical).

20. Which type of cell has CD4 on its surface? Which type of cell has CD8 on its surface? 2122 (4 points) What (with regard to the immune system) is the difference between something that is “non-self” and something that is “altered self”? Answer this and then give an example of something that would be non-self and something that would be “altered self”. Your examples should be consistent with your answer.

23. What is exudate where does it come from what causes it to appear and what is its purpose?

24. What do dendritic cells do?

25. Will exudate contain antibodies if you have never been previously infected with a specific pathogen? Answer yes or no and briefly explain why.

Requirements: Choose the correct answer or answers

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