reply to this post and the next please! Hello everyone, Epidemiology is the study of distribution and determinants of disease in a human population. These kinds of studies are used to describe natural history and to identify the cause of disease. Furthermore it is used to evaluate effectiveness of prevention and control programs. Knowing the factors that are important regarding treatment, prevention, control and research of disease in the population (Schmidt & Brown,2019). There are two types of epidemiological investigation. Descriptive epidemiology is where researchers examine the patterns of spread of the disease in a population in terms of person, place and time. On the other hand, analytic epidemiology is used to investigate the factors that are capable of bringing change in health. These kinds of studies are used to establish goals of Healthy People 2020. Some of the objectives include: attain healthy, thriving lives and well-being, free of preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death;eliminate health disparities, achieve health equity, and attain health literacy to improve the health and well-being of all; create social, physical, and economic environments that promote attaining full potential for health and well-being for all (US Department of Health and Human Services, n.d). The topic that I have chosen is mental health and mental disorders.The goal regarding this topic would be to improve mental health. Some of the objectives include: reduce suicide rate, reduce suicide attempts by adolescent, increase the number of children and adolescents with serious emotional disturbance who get treatment. I particularly focused on increasing the proportion of people with substance use and mental health disorders who get treatment for both. Data is collected with the help of descriptive ecologic studies. Data can be obtained on populations who are facing substance abuse and going through mental health disorder. A general survey could be done on people in several substance abuse support groups such as Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Association (US Department of Health and Human Services, n.d). Some of the advantages of these studies would be that they are inexpensive to conduct, useful when generating hypotheses,and may be used to evaluate the effectiveness of population-level interventions. Despite having lots of advantages , they also have drawbacks. It can be challenging to make comparisons (Schmidt & Brown,2019). Work cited Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. M. (2019). Evidence-based practice for nurses: appraisal and application of research. Jones & Bartlett Learning. US Department of Health and Human Services.(n.d).Healthy People 2030: Increase the proportion of people with substance use and mental health disorders who get treatment for both.Retrieved from: https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/mental-health-and-mental-disorders/increase-proportion-people-substance-use-and-mental-health-disorders-who-get-treatment-both-mhmd-07/data-methodology post #######. 2 Manage Discussion Entry Epidemiology research methods analyses diseases occurring in different groups and why to develop effective care methods that would prevent disease incidence and improve management of existing patients. Techniques applied are inclined towards groups than individuals within the target population, and conclusions are based on comparisons. In healthy people, 2030 topics and objectives are based on epidemiological methods such as cohort study, case-control and cross-sectional studies. For instance, on diabetes, the general objectives include reducing the number of diabetes cases diagnosed yearly, increasing the proportion of adults who use insulin who monitor their blood sugar daily, among others, are focused on group behaviour especially involving cohort focused monitoring (Health.gov.2021). The primary objective of the descriptive or analytical study based on the general goals would evaluate the effectiveness of current diabetes care in reducing the incidence of diabetes among risk groups (Lauer et al., 2017). Comparing annual reports on new cases reported would form the basis for assessing healthy people goals and collecting data on the frequency of monitoring blood sugar among diabetic adults on insulin therapy. Some of the main advantages of epidemiological methods the ease of calculating incidences and direct estimation of relative risks among target groups. Evaluating the relationship between intervention and outcome can be drawn statistically from collected cohort data informing decisions on the type of care (Lauer et al., 2017). The number of resources and time required for follow up make epidemiological methods inappropriate for rare conditions. Another disadvantage is the high risk of attrition during the lengthy follow up. References Diabetes – Healthy People 2030 | health.gov. Health.gov. (2021). Retrieved 28 June 2021, from https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/diabetes (Links to an external site.). Lauer, M., Gordon, D., Wei, G., & Pearson, G. (2017). Efficient design of clinical trials and epidemiological research: is it possible?. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 14(8), 493-501. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrcardio.2017.60
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