250 words each. Answer Discussion Question and respond to 2 classmate post. Part 1 Answer Discussion Questions: How does the Internet facilitate piracy? How might we explain the high levels of involvement in such practices by young people? Whose interests does the criminalization of copying serve? Is there a case for decriminalizing piracy? Part 2 respond to 2 classmate post Classmate 1 Sensan: The term piracy is used to describe the deliberate violation of the Copyrights Acts on commercial products such as software and music. Music piracy is the act of distribution of copies of sound recordings without the permission of the creator. The same concept is applied to the software piracy by using software without a license or making a copy of content and distributing it without the ownerâ€™s permission is a true piracy that violates the Copyright Acts (Harvard Law Review 1999). Suffice it to say that reproducing copyrighted work without the permission of the copyright holders is a violation of the Copyrights laws and against all the rules that prevent and guard against piracy. Online piracy is an intellectual property theft which depicts the practice of downloading and distributing copyrighted content digitally without permission; such may include music software etc. The principle behind online piracy has predated the creation of the Internet but its online popularity arose alongside the internet. Despite its explicit illegality in many countries online piracy is still widely carried out by many users owing to many reasons; more so its ease of use has even gotten much better in recent times because of advances in technology. Intellectual property theft is simply put as the act of copying content without authorization and proper references. The pirating networks tend to model market trends well as members of those networks tend to be early adopters. Intellectual property theft usually use pirated copies of contents to attract customers who are sensitive to price it may not be to the real businessesâ€™ best interest to engage in extraneous price wars with their competitors or invest heavily in anti-piracy campaigns to win target customers. Piracy has also benefited users in countries where content is either unavailable or not easily accessible. The global use of computers in everyday life faster broadband speeds through internet use as well as inexpensive equipment have been widely acknowledged to influence many forms of youth offending which also includes intellectual property theft and all other manners of cyber crimes (Wall 2007). All these are notable drivers of young peopleâ€™s involvement in various forms of online crimes. Many studies (for instance Higgins & Wilson 2006; Ingram & Hinduja 2008) have reported that many young people do not regard the act of intellectual property theft as deviant behavior; instead they see it as a normal behavior. In fact many of these young population are said to be unaware such activities are illegal; this is further compounded by the existence of many websites offering â€œpseudo-legitimateâ€ download opportunities. In addition there are many online spaces creating the appearance of anonymity which can also facilitate online piracy (Brunton-Smith & McCarthy 2016). A number of studies have found that young people are the most likely perpetrators of online piracy offenses. This may be explained by young people having greater levels of leisure time to engage in Internet use having a higher demand for consumption of online media and a greater propensity to engage in offending behavior during the period of adolescence and early adulthood (Farrington 2007; Bachmann 2007). Similarly the online piracy is largely confined to the adolescence-early adulthood period which is also termed a â€œgenerational effectâ€ (Lee & Low 2004). On the issue of decriminalization the principle of piracy decriminalization implies that contents such as software are design and distributed online for free and a surcharge tax is applied to the internet bill to serve as compensation to the software owner. This approach has been tested and proven efficient in other service such us television services where an additional local TV surcharge tax is added to either the electric bill or cable bill based on local state laws and accordingly distributed to local TV channels. With regards to the software systems such legislation will provide solace to the tool user who will be more efficient in knowing that he is operating under the law. It will also help avoid the potential profit loss considering that all internet users will be obligated to pay for the software. More so the cost per individual use of such freely distributed content will likely be reduced to a manageable range since such content is paid for by the global population. While acknowledging that decriminalization may appear to be a game changer to the issue of piracy it comes with non-negligible concerns that will need to be taken into consideration. Therefore enforcing legislations against intellectual property theft will be helpful because such laws are meant to be the guardian of moral ethical and good social behavior. They are also meant to ensure that individual and people within a society is/are treated fairly and equally. References Bachmann M. (2007). Lesson spurned? Reactions of online music pirates to legal prosecutions by the RIAA. International Journal of Cyber Criminology 1 213-227. Brunton-Smith I. & McCarthy D. (2016). Explaining Young Peopleâ€™s Involvement in Online Piracy: An Empirical Assessment Using the Offending Crime and Justice Survey in England and Wales. Victims & Offenders 11 509-533. Farrington D. (2007). Childhood risk factors and risk-focused prevention. In M. Maguire R. Morgan & R. Reiner (Eds.) The Oxford handbook of criminology (4th ed. pp. 602-640). Oxford UK: Oxford University Press. Harvard Law Review (1999). The Criminalization of Copyright Infringement in the Digital Era. Harvard Law Review112(7) 1705-1722. DOI: 10.2307/1342415 Higgins G. & Wilson A. (2006). Low self-control moral beliefs and social learning theory in university studentsâ€™ intentions to pirate software. Security Journal 19 75-92. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.sj.8350002 Ingram J. & Hinduja S. (2008). Neutralizing music piracy: An empirical examination. Deviant Behavior 29 334-366. DOI: 10.1080/01639620701588131 Lee G. & Low R. (2004). Internet pirates: Generational attitudes towards intellectual property online. Paper presented at the ANZMAC Conference Wellington New Zealand. Retrieved from http://researchdirect.uws.edu.au/islandora/object/uws:7178 Wall D. (2007). Cybercrime: The transformation of crime in the information age. Cambridge UK: Polity Press. Classmate 2 Brent: The internet facilitates piracy for the same reason we all use it on a daily basis. Because the internet is everywhere and everything is on it it is easy to simply navigate towards whatever you need or want and just snag it. Because the internet is a fairly new technology (just coming up to the big 3-0!)(Butler. 2019) there are a growing number of younger people who grew up with the technology and have simply come to accept it as part of life. Much like a number of us grew up with rotary phones and standard transmissions on cars. The joke about getting a teenager to set the VCR clock has evolved and we are getting older. When it comes to whose interests are severed by either criminalizing or decriminalizing piracy the line is formed by whoâ€™s side you are on. If you are a creator or things like music videos programs etc. you spend a decent amount of time working and refining the product. In addition to time spent refining there is also the production side to consider. Programmers must go to school to learn the programs a singer has to pay for studio time and producers the director has to direct the movie and got to school to learn how to do that. All of that costs money which is why songs and movies cost money. On the side of the thieves they do not believe that any of that applies to ideas or sounds so everything is free and that is that. Just like the early hackers that felt information should be free to everyone they believe that intellectual property is an oxymoron. Interestingly when college students are asked about â€˜grade sharingâ€™ in class they become extremely defensive about reducing their As and Bs to low Cs to bring everyone in the class up. Suddenly there is a sentiment of â€˜well I worked for my GPA and the other guys didnâ€™tâ€™ and that is essentially the easiest and most succinct summary or whether or not to criminalize piracy. Bart Campus Reform. 2019.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yCPcM8GlptM Butler S. 2019. When Was the Internet Invented? 10 Facts You Probably Didnâ€™t Know. https://www.online-tech-tips.com/fun-stuff/when-wa…
Requirements: 250 each
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