Intimate partner violence

Samantha Perry is a 45-year-old married white female with an appointment to see her nurse practitioner (NP) for her annual examination. As part of her annual physical, Samantha will be having a pelvic examination including a Papanicolau test in order to screen for cervical cancer. Samantha has three teenage daughters, all born by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Several years ago Samantha returned to work full time at a rather sedentary job. Samantha has found her weight to be increasing over these past few years and is now carrying 164 pounds on her 5 foot, 1 inch frame. Over the years Samantha and her NP have developed a trusting and therapeutic relationship. As part of the history-taking process the NP asks Samantha if she has ever been “hit, slapped, or forced to have sex against her wishes.” Samantha states that she has not; however, she hesitates in her response. The NP senses that she may need to elicit further information from Samantha without making her feel uncomfortable. She queries Samantha to see if there have been any changes in the past year related to the sexual relationship that she has with her partner. Samantha appears somewhat embarrassed; but, with some encouragement, she goes on to explain that in the past she and her husband have always enjoyed intercourse two to three times a week and that this is a very important part of their marriage. Samantha states that for the last 9 to 10 months she has begun to “lose urine” during intercourse. Sometimes this occurs during foreplay and on other occasions it will happen during orgasm. Samantha reports that she often interrupts their sexual activity to go to the bathroom. Recently, she is finding excuses to avoid sex altogether and is concerned that she is driving her husband away. The NP explains to Samantha that this condition is referred to as “stress or coital incontinence” and may be the result of child-bearing, aging, and her recent weight gain. Education is provided regarding the necessity for urodynamic evaluation and the possible treatment modalities available. Samantha is instructed on how to perform Kegel exercises during her pelvic examination. The NP reassures Samantha that although this condition is embarrassing it is neither uncommon nor life threatening, if left untreated it may result in other unanticipated symptomatology including depression, loss of self-esteem, altered body image, worsening of incontinence, reduced social interaction, and decreased sexual interest and activity. Samantha is very reassured by this education and agrees to the treatment plan.

Case Analysis

This case study illustrates a patient-centered relationship founded on established trust and rapport. Secondary prevention efforts include screening for cervical cancer and sexual violence. Relying on her assessment skills of the patient’s appearance and behavior in response to the interview questions, the NP pursues the history as it relates to the patient’s sexual relationship with her husband. The NP discovers the patient’s reticent demeanor is related to her stress incontinence and the subsequent feelings of embarrassment, shame, and a lack of understanding regarding the condition. This is interfering with the patient’s sexual well-being and her intimate relationship with her husband, which the patient values. The NP takes the opportunity to provide appropriate patient education with regard to stress incontinence, and although not minimizing the concern, she instead normalizes the condition for the patient. The NP has provided a tangible intervention the patient can do with ease by instructing about Kegel exercises. In addition, the NP has reinforced for Samantha that she is safe to discuss her sexuality with her healthcare provider and that it is an important part of her health care.

QUESTION:

1. Intimate partner violence is a situation where a patient could seek guidance from a nurse. In the case study, the NP asks Samantha if she has ever been “hit, slapped, or forced to have sex against her wishes.” What other questions can you think of that also address the issue of whether a patient is a victim of sexual abuse? (At least five)

2. Samantha reports difficulty holding her urine at times and the NP educates her on Kegel exercises. When is the best time to teach Kegel exercises? Why?

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