# Kinetic Theory and Absolute Zero

Question 1: Kinetic Theory and Absolute Zero (2 points)

a. What is absolute zero? What is the temperature of absolute zero on the Kelvin and Celsius scales? (1 point)

b. What does the kinetic theory say about the kinetic energy present in solids? (1 point)

Question 2: Phase Diagrams (3 points)

a. Describe what a phase diagram is. (1 point)

b. Explain the changes in kinetic energy as a substance is heated to its melting point and how these changes affect intermolecular forces during the heating process. (1 point)

c. How do the phase diagrams for water and carbon dioxide differ? (1 point)

Question 3: Solids (5 points)

a. What is the difference between a crystalline solid and an amorphous solid? (1 point)

b. Name the type of crystalline solid formed from the following structural units and describe how the solid is formed. (2 points)

c. Match each property of solids with its definition. (2 points)

A. BrittlenessB. DuctilityC. ConductivityD. Malleability_____ Ability to be bent or flattened_____ Ability to move heat or charge_____ Tendency to break rather than bend_____ Ability to be stretched without breaking

Question 4: Solutions (6 points)

a. Is a solution a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture? Explain your answer. (1 point)

b. Match each term to its definition. (2 points)A. SoluteB. SolventC.

SolutionD. Solubility_____ Substance that does the dissolving_____ Amount of substance that can be dissolved_____ Substance that is dissolved_____ Mixture containing one substance dissolved in another substance c. How can one make a supersaturated solution? (1 point)

d. Describe the following concentration measurements. (2 points)

Question 5: Effects of Solute on Solvent (2 points)

a. What effect does adding a solute to a solvent have on the freezing point of the solvent? What equation describes the effect? (1 point)

b. What effect does adding a solute to a solvent have on the boiling point of the solvent? What equation describes the effect? (1 point)

Question 6: The Ideal Gas Law (7 points)

a. What is the mathematical equation for the ideal gas law? Identify each variable and give its units. (2 points)

b. Match the special cases of each gas law with its description. A law may be used more than once. In the equations k is a constant. (3 points)A. Boyles lawB. Charless lawC. Avogadros lawD. Daltons law_____ P1 V1 = P2 V2_____ V/T = k_____ V1 / T1 = V2 / T2_____ V = kn_____ PV = k_____ Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + . c. Conditions at STP (2 points) Requirements: Answer in complete sentences. ‘

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