Posted: April 19th, 2021
In this chapter we present a number of different techniques, which by the methodical procedures (see Figure 1.10) for the different views can be designed as effective methods for creating knowledge. The chapter also takes up issues around validity, reliability and objectivity. Presented here are some techniques that are specific for different methodological views as well, techniques that in several respects characterize these different views and their actions in the study area.
PROCEDURES AS LESSONS IN HARMONY
The description of the different methodological views has, for defensible reasons, not followed a completely uniform line. One methodological view is not like another, which means that we need somewhat different ways of describing them. We would like to add to this treatment a bit before we proceed. The descriptions of the first two views – the analytical view (Chapter 4) and the systems
view (Chapter 5) – were illustrated, among other things, with examples of different theories and results to which they have led. This was less appropriate for the actors view (Chapter 6); there we referred to metatheories, which are not comparable to the theories of the other two views. This is explained by the presumptions or lack of presumptions about reality made by the various views. From this it also follows that the analytical view and the systems view, to a greater extent than the actors view, stress the importance of charting earlier studies and their results within a given field of research/consulting/investigation before the next study is undertaken. This will be fairly obvious if we consider the following. If reality is presumed to be filled
with facts, interest will of necessity be directed toward how this objective and/or subjective factive reality appears, that is, the researcher/consultant/investigator aims at using or developing reproduction theories. If we instead presume, as in the actors view, that reality is basically a social construction dependent upon us as observers/actors, interest will be directed toward the way this reality is constructed, that is, the researcher/consultant/investigator aims at developing construction theories. But the actors view, as we know, also “reproduces” a social reality by using its descriptive and ideal- typified languages. These constructions are called metatheories because they not only include these languages (their own construction), but are also the prerequisites of their development. This could be perceived as the actors view going one step further than the other two views
(it brings an understanding of, or depicts, both the construction of reality and its appearance).
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