Molecular nutrition -Concepts of genetics – translation and transcription Cell signaling

To solve the questions you must be aware  of these key words :Molecular nutrition -Concepts of genetics – translation and transcription-

Cell signalling -eukaryotic promoter- the promoter, enhancer and repressor regions

The attached document contains two sections of the question

The first section includes a question about translation and transcription in genes – genetics in general

Instructions are attached with it

Please follow it

 

The second section has two types of questions:

1-questions depends on the sources attached to the document

2-questions depends on your knowledge of this field

You should also search for reliable sources to find the appropriate answer

Instructions are attached with it

Please follow it

 

 

 

Section 1 :Answers must be free of plagiarism

Please attach the sources + page number

Answers should not exceed 150 to 200 words

 

 

Using your, background reading and the available literature attempt the following questions.

 

  1. Describe the meaning of the following terms, a) gene and b) an allele.

 

  1. Draw a figure representative of the features associated with key regions of a gene that are important for gene expression and transcription.

 

  1. Define the following, a) transcriptional start site, b) termination sequence, c) 5’UTR, d) 3’UTR, e) poly-A signal sequence, f) Exon, g) Intron.

 

  1. What are the roles of a) the promoter, b) enhancer and c) repressor regions. Why are these features important in the regulation of gene expression?

 

  1. A typical eukaryotic promoter is composed of three core regions. Describe key features of these regions? what roles do these features play in gene transcription? Use diagrams were necessary.

 

  1. Using an example, describe the key signalling steps that occur that lead to the activation of a transcription factor and the up-regulation of target genes.

 

 

  1. Describe the key steps involved in eukaryotic transcription.

 

  1. Define epigenetics and describe using examples chemical processes that occurs in cells leading to the activation or silencing of genes. What are the biochemical events are important in these processes?

 

Section2 :

 

 

Please have a read of the following link, https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/cell-signaling-14047077/

 

Can you also read the following paper and make notes. Uings (200) Cell receptors and cell signalling. Mol Pathol. 53(6): 295–299.

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1186983/

 

Using these references sources and your knowledge of general topics linked to cell signalling. Once you have read these materials please read this paper and attempt the following questions and tasks.

 

 

Part 1. Fill in the blanks.

 

Q1. Cell signalling can result either from the ……………………. interaction of a cell with its neighbour or from the action of ……………………………  signalling molecules like ………………….. or …………………………..in the general circulation that have been ingested.

 

Q2 ………………………….cell signalling involves a signalling molecule e.g. a

hormone, secreted by an ……………………………. that is transported through the

………………………… to act on distant target cells.

 

Q3. Paracrine signaling involves a molecule released by one cell that acts on ……………………….. target cell i.e. ……………………….Common examples of signalling molecules that act on this signalling system include, 1)………………………., 2)……………………… and 3)…………………………..

 

Q4. Once a ………………………..protein receives a signal, it undergoes a …………………………. change, which in turn launches a series of ……………………………..reactions within the cell. These intracellular signalling pathways, also called ………………….  ………………………………..

cascades, typically ………………………….. the message, producing multiple intracellular signals.

 

Q5. Protein ……………………….. represent a unique, highly dynamic, and …………………… regulated set of switches that control most  biological events in …………………………….  Cells

 

Q6. The activity of …………………………… and phosphatases can be …………………………  either by ……………………………… messengers, such as …………………… or ………………………….., or by extracellular chemical signals, such as ……………………………..

 

Q7. Protein kinases (add/remove) ……………………………… to proteins and Protein phosphatases (add/remove) ………………………………………. From proteins.

 

Q8. ROS of physiological significance are the ………………………… anion (O22- ), ……………………. (●OH), and ……………………………… (H2O2).

 

Q9. Signal transduction pathways consist of: a ………………………, …………………………. system, and an ………………………….

 

Q10. Transduction can be direct (…………………………) or indirect (utilizing ………………… messengers); these and/or transduction cascades can ……………………….. signals.

 

 

 

 

Part 2. In the space provided attempt the following.

 

Q11. List as many factors that you can find that act as soluble signals that trigger receptors? Answers must be free of plagiarism

If you use sources, Please attach the sources + page number

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q12. Using the research paper by Uing (2002) and PubMed, draw a Table as shown below and fill with the appropriate information. Use key internet searches to aid your research

 

Receptor type Common ligands Common nutrients inducer Cellular Response Secondary messenger used?
Receptor tyrosine kinases        
Ligand gated ion channels        
G protein coupled receptors        

 

Q13. Name FIVE nutrients that activate cell signalling cascades, name the signalling cascade activated and the transcription factor involved in mediating a response? Be as detailed as you feel fit. Answers must be free of plagiarism

Please attach the sources + page number

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q14. Draw the following on a piece of paper and fill in the BLANK sections and attempt the question boxes. Answers must be free of plagiarism

Please attach the sources + page number

 

 

Q15. In TWO sentences describe the origins of the following secondary messengers, and fill in the BLANK boxes.

Answers must be free of plagiarism

Please attach the sources + page number

 

 

 

Answer the following,

 

Q16. What causes oxygen to form the superoxide anion?

 

 

Q17. What is the product of superoxide following its metabolism? Do these metabolites function in cell signalling?

 

 

Q18. Write an essay plan for the following question, Traditionally, metabolism and signaling have been considered independent aspects of cellular activity.  However, more recent work stresses the relationships of metabolites as signals and the linkage between metabolism and cellular signaling.  Give examples that justify the linkage between signaling and metabolism, and explain. This should be written as quickly as possible either using mind mapping strategies or bubbling approaches

A brief written explanation of the drawing must be attached) Answer should not exceed 150 to 200 words(

 

 

Answers must be free of plagiarism

Please attach the sources + page number

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 4.  These ‘General’ videos.it could help in  understanding

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOVkedxDqQo

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-usAds_-lU

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iv5ceFD19WQ

 

 

 

 

 

 

The End

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
1
You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! Via + 1 3234125597

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 25% with the discount code CLASS