Mosquitoes can be stably infected by Wolbachia

1. Which of the following features of Wolbachia has NOT been shown to have potential in controlling the spread of malaria by at least some populations of mosquitoes?

  1. Mosquitoes can be stably infected by Wolbachia for multiple generations.
  2. Mosquitoes infected by Wolbachia are less likely to transmit the malaria parasite.
  3. Mosquitoes infected by Wolbachia are less likely to take a blood meal.
  4. All of the above have been shown in some populations of mosquitoes.

2. In which of the following lifestyles are you most likely to find hypermetamorphosis?

  1. Gall-forming flies
  2. Seed-feeding beetles
  3. Parasitoid wasps
  4. Parasitoid flies
  5. Blood-feeding flies

3. Which of the following herbivorous lifestyles is going to be least affected by predators or parasitoids?

  1. Leaf chewing
  2. Sap sucking
  3. Flower feeding
  4. Leaf mining
  5. Root boring

4. Secondary metabolites are…

  1. …defensive chemicals in plants that are not immediately involved in primary metabolism.
  2. …defensive chemicals in plants that are also intermediates in primary metabolic pathways.
  3. …primary metabolites in plants that serve a secondary defensive function.
  4. …metabolites that are not produced by plants but are instead produced by symbiotic bacteria housed in root nodules.
  5. …products of metabolic pathways that plants use when essential nutrients are limiting.

5. An idiobiont is…

  1. …a parasitoid in which the nervous system of the host has been manipulated so that the host behaves in a manner detrimental to itself but beneficial to its parasitoid.
  2. …a parasitoid that consumes its host while the host is still feeding and growing.
  3. …a parasitoid whose host is still feeding and growing, but is being prevented from undergoing metamorphosis by the parasitoid.
  4. …a parasitoid whose host has been paralyzed by the mother of its parasitoid(s) and no longer feeds or grows.
  5. …a parasitoid that parasitizes another parasitoid.



6. Which of the following ANT/PLANT interactions is/are generally considered antagonistic?

  1. Ants tending butterfly caterpillars on plant leaves.
  2. Leaf-cutter ants cultivating fungus gardens with chewed-up plant leaves.
  3. Ant consumption of plant elaiosomes.
  4. Ants tending extra-floral nectaries.
  5. Ants living in plant domatia.
  6. A and B are considered antagonistic
  7. A, B, and C are considered antagonistic
  8. A, B, C, and D are considered antagonistic
  9. All of the above are considered antagonistic

7. Which of the following statements is true about the relationship between figs and wasps in the family Agaonidae?

  1. The wasps are exclusively mutualistic pollinators of the figs.
  2. There is a high level of cophylogenesis between pollinating wasps and figs.
  3. There is very little correlation between fig fruit morphology and fig wasp morphology.
  4. All fruits in fig trees are pollinated by and set seed as a result of pollinating fig wasps.
  5. Sex ratios in pollinating fig wasps are almost always 50:50.

8. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about necrophagous and coprophagous insects?

a.They are often very closely related.

b.The widespread occurrence of viviparity in these insects is due to a single origin of this trait in the common ancestor of these groups.

c.Both have characteristic patterns of succession.

d.Both are rare because of the scarcity of the resources.

e.Both provide important ecosystem services.

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