Order Critical Appraisal Assignment

Order Critical Appraisal Assignment
Association between bone indices assessed by DXA, HR‑pQCT and QCT scans in post‑menopausal women
Anne Kristine Amstrup1 · Niels Frederik Breum Jakobsen1 · Emil Moser1 · Tanja Sikjaer1 · Leif Mosekilde1 · Lars Rejnmark1
Received: 30 January 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published online: 21 August 2015 © The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan 2015
weak to moderate. Our data suggest that the various tech- niques measure different characteristics of the bone, and may therefore be used in addition to rather than as a replac- ment for imaging in clinical practice.
Keywords aBMD · vBMD · QCT · DXA · HR-pQCT
Introduction
Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder resulting from changes in bone mineral density, bone geometry and micro- structure that leads to an increased susceptibility to frac- tures. Currently, diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD; g/cm2) values gained from 2D techniques (dual X-ray absorptiometry or DXA scans). However, aBMD has been shown to be only a partial pre- dictor of fracture risk [1, 2]. This may in part be due to the fact that 2D measures do not fully reflect the distribution of bone mass, including the relative contribution from cor- tical and trabecular bone or the microarchitecture of the bone matrix. For these aspects, imaging techniques such as quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and high- resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) may present much better alternatives. QCT techniques enable measurements at cen- tral sites such as lumbar spine and hip [3] and are consid- ered to measure true volumetric BMD (vBMD; mg/cm3). HR-pQCT, an improved detector technique combined with beam acquisition originally designed for micro-computed tomography, permits in vivo assessment of trabecular and cortical architecture and vBMD at distal sites such as the tibia and radius [4]. In addition, these images can be used for microstructural finite element analysis (FEA) that inte- grates BMD with bone geometry and structure to estimate bone strength under various loading conditions [4].
Order Critical Appraisal Assignment
Abstract Quantitative computed tomography (QCT), high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are commonly used when assessing bone mass and structure in patients with osteoporosis. Depending on the imaging technique and measuring site, different information on bone quality is obtained. How well these techniques correlate when assessing central as well as distal skeletal sites has not been carefully assessed to date. One hundred and twenty- five post-menopausal women aged 56–82 (mean 63) years were studied using DXA scans (spine, hip, whole body and forearm), including trabecular bone score (TBS), QCT scans (spine and hip) and HR-pQCT scans (distal radius and tibia). Central site measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by QCT correlated significantly at the hip (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Distal site measurements of density at the radius as assessed by DXA and HR-pQCT were also associated (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Correlations between distal and cen- tral site measurements of the hip and of the tibia and radius showed weak to moderate correlation between vBMD by HR-pQCT and QCT (r = −0.27 to 0.54). TBS correlated with QCT at the lumbar spine (r = 0.35) and to trabecu- lar indices of HR-pQCT at the radius and tibia (r = −0.16 to 0.31, p < 0.01). There was moderate to strong agree- ment between measuring techniques when assessing the same skeletal site. However, when assessing correlations between central and distal sites, the associations were only
* Anne Kristine Amstrup [email protected]
1 Osteoporosis Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine (MEA), THG, Aarhus University Hospital, Tage-Hansens Gade 2, Aarhus C, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1007/s00774-015-0708-9

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code HAPPY