Organic Molecules and Their Importance

Organic Molecules and Their Importance
Organic Molecules and their Importance in Living Things
Name _________________________
Total points = 88
Your grade = your score ÷ 88 x 100
1. Give the definition for an organic molecule. The study guide emphasizes the “central role of carbon”. How does carbon play a central role in the construction of organic molecules? 8 points
Organic Molecules and Their Importance
2. Match each functional group to the type of molecule where it is typically found.
10 points
Functional Group
Type of Molecule
1. _____ Aldehyde Groups
A. Amino Acids and Proteins
2. _____ Amino Groups
B. Alcohols
3. _____ Ketone groups
C. High Energy Molecules (ATP)
Organic Molecules and Their Importance
4. _____ Hydroxyl Groups
D. Ends of Sugar Molecules
5, _____ Phosphate Groups
E. Interiors of Sugar Molecules
3. Define the following reactions: dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis. What is the importance of each of these reactions in living organisms? 8 points
4. Define the term carbohydrate. Name, define, and give functions of each the three kinds of carbohydrates. 8 points.
5. Explain how a fat or oil is made by identifying the components of the fat or oil and explaining the chemical reaction that joins them together. What is the function of a fat or oil? 6 points
6. What type of lipid molecules make up the middle layer of the cell membrane? Define hydrophyllic and hydrophobic and identify which part of the molecule that each of these terms describes. 6 points
7. What are steroids? Give examples of some substances important in body function that are steroids. 4 points
8. What is a protein? Indicate the elements found in a protein. What are the molecules that join together to form proteins? What are the chemical bonds that link the molecules together? 6 points
9. What are the four levels of protein structure? Describe each. 8 points
10. Define: enzyme, catalyst. Explain why enzymes combine with specific substrates. 6 points
11. How do enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions? 2 points
12. What is the effect of increasing the temperature on the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction? What happens when the temperature becomes greater than 40°C? 4 points
13. What are the components of DNA? What is the importance of DNA? 8 points
14. What are the components of ATP? What is the importance of ATP in living things? 4 points

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