Post a message that presents your answers to the case questions for Case 25 How Much for a Good Smell? Reply to two students and using your research add to or challenge the findings of your peers. Post all responses by replying to the thread created by the instructor entitled â€œWeek 4 Dialogue Responsesâ€ located in this forum Discussion Posts Guidelines Posting to Weekly Dialogues Instructions and Guidelines To create one cohesive discussion forum and community please post all responses and replies by replying to the thread created by instructor entitled â€œWeek 1 Dialogue Responsesâ€. Please note: you will not create your own discussion thread. You will submit your initlal discussion post by replying to my weekly discussion thread. To post your initial dialogue response click on Reply button in the bottom left corner inside of the â€œWeek 1 Dialogue Responsesâ€ thread. The initial dialogue response must be 200-300 words and include a minimum of two academic peer reviewed scholarly articles outside of the textbook. (Due Wednesday 11:59 p.m. EST). Click Submit to make your post available to the rest of the class. To respond to other studentsâ€™ threads click on Reply button in the bottom left corner inside of a message. Reply to two students and using your research add to or challenge the findings of your peers ranging from 125-200 words (Due Sunday by 11:59 p.m. EST). The first reply must include at one least scholarly reference. The second response allows for a time of reflection–describe what you gained from reading another studentâ€™s initial post extra references or research are not expected for the second reply. Hello Class Today I wanted to give you some additional information on various pricing concepts and strategies. Pricing Concepts for Establishing Value The Five Cs of Pricing The five Cs of pricing are Company Objectives Customers Costs Competition and Channel Members (Grewal & Levy 2013). Four Pricing Orientations. A profit-oriented pricing strategy focuses on maximizing or at least reaching a target profit for the company (Grewal & Levy 2013). A sales orientation instead sets prices with the goal of increasing sales levels. With a competitor-oriented pricing strategy a firm sets its prices according to what its competitors do. Finally a customer-oriented strategy determines consumersâ€™ perceptions of value and prices accordingly. The relationship between price and quantity sold. Generally when prices go up quantity sold goes down. Sometimes howeverâ€”particularly with prestige products and servicesâ€”demand actually increases with price. Price elasticity. Changes in price generally affect demand; price elasticity measures the extent of this effect. It is based on the percentage change in quantity divided by the percentage change in price. Depending on the resulting value a market offering can be identified as elastic such that the market is very price sensitive or inelastic in which case the market cares little about the price (Grewal & Levy 2013). How to calculate a productâ€™s breakeven point. Because the break-even point occurs when the units sold generate just enough profit to cover the total costs of producing those units it requires knowledge of the fixed cost total cost and total revenue curves. When these curves intersect the marketer has found the breakeven point. The four types of price competitive levels. In a monopoly setting either one firm controls the market and sets the price or many firms compete with differentiated products rather than on price. Monopolistic competition occurs when there are many firms competing for customers in a given market but their products are differentiated (Grewal & Levy 2013). In an oligopolistic competitive market a few firms dominate and tend to set prices according to a competitor-oriented strategy. Finally pure competition means that consumers likely regard the products offered by different companies as basic substitutes so the firms must work hard to achieve the lowest price point limited by the laws of supply and demand (Grewal & Levy 2013). The difference between an everyday low price strategy (EDLP) and a high/low strategy. An everyday low pricing strategy is maintained when a productâ€™s price stays relatively constant at a level that is slightly lower than the regular price from competitors using a high/low strategy and is less frequently discounted (Levy & Weitz 2012). Customers enjoy an everyday low pricing strategy because they know that the price will always be the about the same and a better price than the competition. High/low pricing strategy starts out with a product at one (higher) price and then discounts the product. This strategy first attracts a less price sensitive customer that pays the regular price and then a very price sensitive customer that pays the low price (Levy & Weitz 2012). The difference between a market penetration pricing strategy and a price skimming pricing strategy. When firms use a price skimming strategy the product or service must be perceived as breaking new ground or customers will not pay more than what they pay for other products. Firms use price skimming to signal high quality limit demand recoup their investment quickly and/or test peopleâ€™s price sensitivity (Grewal & Levy 2013). Moreover it is easier to price high initially and then lower the price than vice versa. Market penetration in contrast helps firms build sales and market share quickly which may discourage other firms from entering the market. Building demand quickly also typically results in lowered costs as the firm gains experience making the product or delivering the service. Pricing practices that have the potential to deceive customers. There are almost as many ways to get into trouble by setting or changing a price as there are pricing strategies and tactics. Some common legal issues pertain to advertising deceptive prices. Specifically if a firm compares a reduced price with a â€œregularâ€ or reference price it must actually have sold that product or service at the regular price. Bait and switch is another form of deceptive price advertising where sellers advertises items for a very low price without the intent to really sell any at that price. In many states advertising the sale of products priced below the retailerâ€™s cost also constitutes a form of bait and switch. Collusion among firms to fix prices is always illegal (Levy & Weitz 2012). References Grewal D. & Levy M. (2013).M: Marketing. (3nd ed.). New York NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Levy M. & Weitz B. A. (2012). Retailing management (8th ed.). New York NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Requirements: idk
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