risk3e_ppt_ch02.pptx

CHAPTER 2
Managing Risk: Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Exploits

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Copyright © 2022 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC an Ascend Learning Company. www.jblearning.com

Learning Objective(s) and Key Concepts
Describe techniques for identifying, analyzing, and mitigating relevant threats, vulnerabilities, and exploits.

Understanding and managing threats, vulnerabilities, and exploits
Use of threat/vulnerability pairs in managing risk
U.S. federal government risk management initiatives
Learning Objective(s)
Key Concepts

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Understanding and Protecting Assets

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An asset represents anything of value that needs to be protected

In the IT world, assets include data, people, processes, and technology systems

Weaknesses in any of these areas can be exploited by threats to harm these assets

Understanding and Managing Threats

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Risk =

Threat
×
Vulnerability
×
Asset

Uncontrollable Nature of Threats

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Threats cannot be eliminated

Threats are always present

Threats can persist for a long period of time

Action can be taken to reduce the potential for a threat to occur

Action can be taken to reduce the impact of a threat

Unintentional Threats

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Environmental

Human

Accidents

Failures

Intentional Threats

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Greed

Anger

Desire to damage

Intentional and Unintentional Threats

Unintentional Threats Intentional Threats

Environmental:
Fire, wind
Lightning, flooding
Accident
Equipment failures Individuals or organizations:
Criminals
Advanced persistent threats (APTs)
Vandals
Saboteurs
Disgruntled employees
Activists
Other nations

Human:
Keystroke errors
Procedural errors
Programming bugs

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Best Practices for Managing Risk Within an IT Infrastructure

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Create a security policy

Purchase insurance

Use access controls

Use automation

Include input validation

Provide training

Use antivirus software

EY Global Information Security Survey 2018–2019
Cyberrisks are evolving
Organizations must:
Protect the enterprise
Optimize security
Increase efficiency
Reinvest in tech that enhances protection
6.4 billion fake emails sent; average cost of breach $3.62 million
40% had same budget as previous year, 15% plan to increase budget, 1% had 25% budget decrease
Largest source of vulnerabilities is careless or unaware employees
Cybersecurity needs to be in the DNA of the organization

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Understanding and Managing Vulnerabilities
Countermeasures reduce risk and loss
Reduce vulnerabilities
Reduce impact of loss

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Threat/Vulnerability Pairs

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Occurs when a threat exploits a vulnerability

A vulnerability provides a path for the threat that results in a harmful event or a loss

Both the threat and the vulnerability must come together to result in a loss

Vulnerabilities Can Be Mitigated

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Identify and prioritize vulnerabilities

Reduce the exposure of the vulnerabilities

Reduce the rate of occurrence

Reduce the impact of the loss

Provide security education, training, and awareness

Mitigation Techniques

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Policies and procedures

Documentation

Training

Separation of duties

Configuration management

Version control

Patch management

Intrusion detection system (IDS)

Incident response

Continuous monitoring

Technical controls

Physical controls

Best Practices for Managing Vulnerabilities Within an IT Infrastructure

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Identify vulnerabilities

Match the threat/vulnerability pairs

Use as many of the mitigation techniques as feasible

Perform vulnerability assessments

Use security analytical tools

Understanding and Managing Exploits

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An exploit is the act of taking advantage of a vulnerability

Executes a command or program against an IT system to take advantage of a weakness

Results in a compromise to the system, an application, or data

Understanding and Managing Exploits

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Attacks executed by code primarily affect public-facing servers

Web servers

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) email servers

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers

Exploits

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Attack public-facing servers

Buffer overflow

SQL injection

Denial of service (DoS) attack

Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack

How Do Perpetrators Initiate an Exploit?

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Public server discovery

Server fingerprinting

Vulnerability discovery

Programmers

Attackers

Where Do Perpetrators Find Information About Vulnerabilities and Exploits?

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Blogs

Forums

Security newsletters

2600: The Hacker Quarterly

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) list

Reverse engineering

The dark web

Mitigation Techniques
Remove or change defaults
Reduce the attack surface
Keep systems up to date
Enable firewalls
Enable IDS
Enable an intrusion prevention system
Install antivirus software

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Best Practices for Managing Exploits Within an IT Infrastructure
Harden servers
Use configuration management
Perform risk assessments
Perform vulnerability assessments
Use security information and event management (SIEM) tools

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U.S. Federal Government Risk Management Initiatives

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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

The Department of Homeland Security

The National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC)

U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT)

The MITRE Corporation – Common Vulnerabilities Exposure (CVE) List

Relationships Among Organizations Involved in the U.S. Federal Government Risk Management Initiatives

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Summary
Understanding and managing threats, vulnerabilities, and exploits
Use of threat/vulnerability pairs in managing risk
U.S. federal government risk management initiatives

Copyright © 2022 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC an Ascend Learning Company. www.jblearning.com

10/8/2020

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