# The environmental remediation of chlorophenol

The environmental remediation of chlorophenol involves oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to produce steam, hydrochloric acid, and carbon dioxide inside a cold worked and annealed zirconium 702 (properties under miscellaneous nonferrous alloys) reactor.  C6H5ClO + 13 H2O2 → 6 CO2 + HCl + 15 H2O   In the short term, you have to make a temporary replacement of a non-zirconium thermocouple (temperature-measuring device) to control the temperature at 380oC and 250 atm.  The reactor is located outdoors and is operated in batch mode, and in order to halt the reaction, NaOH is added, the neutralized products are emptied, and the reactor is readied for the next batch of chlorophenol to destroy.  When H2O2 decomposes, it does generate H2 gas as an intermediate before that hydrogen gets consumed in the reaction.

1)  (5 pts.) A) What factors might lead to any type of failure for the reactor or reaction?

(5 pts.) B) Associate each factor from part A with a failure mechanism.

(5 pts.) C) What can you do to prevent the scenario described in A) from failing?

(12 pts.) D) Look up the properties of “zirconium, reactor grade 702” alloy in appendixb.pdf under Miscellaneous Nonferrous Alloys.  Calculate the energy per unit volume necessary for reactor explosion, presuming no cracks.  You do not need an area or thickness.  As part of this problem, sketch the stress vs. strain diagram.

1. E) (5 pts.) After many years of using the reactor, the reactor now has a 0.001 m long crack. Calculate the maximum possible stress that the reactor can now handle. Did the crack lower the amount of stress that could handle, and if so, did it lower the stress enough to make the reactor “brittle”?  Assume KIC = 10 MPa * m5 for zirconium 702.
2)  Cubic b-BN has a structure consistent with ZnS.  In later parts, BE CONSISTENT WITH PREVIOUS ANSWERS.

1. A) (2 pts.) Determine the electronegativities of B and N. See the electronegativity table.

EN(B) =                                  EN(N) =

1. B) (2 pts.) Calculate the percent ionic character of a B-N bond.

1. C) (2 pts.) Classify the B-N bond as an ionic, covalent, hydrogen, or metallic bond.

1. D) (2 pts.) Use the accompanying table to determine the bond radii for B and N in BN?

1. E) (1 pt.) What are the coordination numbers for both B and N?

1. F) (6 pts.) Determine the relationship between the lattice parameter, a, and the radii of the

B and N atoms (or ions).  You may want to do part G first.

1. G) (4 pts.) Sketch the (022) plane for BN.

1. H) (4 pts.) Determine the planar density of the (022) BN plane. Express your answer as

a decimal (not in terms of “a”, the lattice parameter).

1. I) (4 pts.) Determine the bulk density of cubic b-BN in g/cm3.  mass B = 10.811 g/mole.  At. mass N = 14.007 g/mole.  Avogadro’s # = 6.022 x 1023 atoms/mole of atoms.

1. J) (2 pts.) Would the (022) BN plane be seen by XRD? Briefly explain your answer.

3)  (2 pts.) Classify the following materials as metals, insulators, or semiconductors.

1. A) gold ___________________ B) boron nitride (BN) ________________

1. C) table salt (NaCl) _________________ D) bone ________________________

4) (9 pts.)  Provide a list of at least 3 causes (including all obvious ones) of why an offshore oil rig drilling in 200 m deep water might fail, associate these causes with corresponding failure mechanisms, and list a set of actions you will take to prevent failure.

5) (18 pts. total) Using the accompanying platinum-vanadium phase diagram, if you start at 1900oC and cool down very slowly to 800oC, sketch the microstructure associated with each temperature, determine what phases are present at each temperature, determine the compositions for each phase, and determine the weight in each phase.  The 100 kg of Pt-V mixture has 28 wt. % V in it.  Several compounds have their chemical formulas as “names”.

1900oC)  Microstructural drawing     Phase(s) present

Weight % of V in each phase

Weight of each phase

1725oC)  Microstructural drawing     Phase(s) present

above line

Weight % of V in each phase

Weight of each phase

1420oC)  Microstructural drawing     Phase(s) present

above line

Weight % of V in each phase

Weight of each phase

800oC)  Microstructural drawing       Phase(s) present

Weight % of V in each phase

Weight of each phase

6) (7 pts.)  Discuss the applicability (or lack of applicability) of heat treating and aging to            the platinum/vanadium material you made in the prior problem.  If heat treating

and aging is both worthwhile and possible, develop a “recipe” (including

temperatures and either endpoints or times) to make the Pt/V sample as hard as

it can get.  If heat treating and aging is either irrelevant or not possible, explain

why this is so.

7)  Using the accompanying time-temperature-transformation diagram for 4340 steel, outline a procedure by which you would generate the following steel phases.  You can draw your answer on the TTT diagram.

1. A) (3 pts.) a mixture of proeutectoid a-ferrite and eutectoid pearlite

1. B) (3 pts.) a mixture of martensite, proeutectoid a-ferrite, and eutectoid pearlite

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