The structure and functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular ,nervous and respiratory systems

You are provided with two case studies .You must choose one of these . For your chosen case study, you will write a detailed explanation of how factors within the case study affect the structure and functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular ,nervous and respiratory systems. Within your explanation you must ensure to explain how the two systems you have chosen are interrelated, this can be done by discussing how altering the structure of one of the systems impacts on how the other system functions. Within this task you may use drawings or flowcharts to support your explanations.

(1200 words max).


Case studies

  1. a) Privvi Patel, aged 30, lives a sedentary lifestyle .She gave up smoking 5 years ago and makes significant efforts with her appearance. She does not worry about planning meals or eating much food. She often forgets to eat. Part of her psychological rehabilitation from her addiction to smoking was to engage in computer games so that she does something with her hands as well as engages her mind. She also suffers from insomnia and thinks sleep cooking, and sitting down for meals, is ‘a waste of time’.

For the past year, she has suffered breathlessness walking up the one flight of stairs to her large riverside flat. One day her stiletto heel breaks and she trips on the top of the landing and experience pain in her lower right leg.

Following a taxi ride to Hospital, she has an MRI scan of her lower limbs, her heart and her lungs. She also undergoes a bone density assessment, blood tests, lung function test, blood pressure checks, and an ECG.

Her ECG indicates normal function but her Respiration Rate and Blood Pressure are slightly elevated. The MRI scan shows blockage in her left bronchi.

Her blood test results are also anomalous indicating reduced calcitonin, oestrogen and growth hormone levels. The mentioned affects her musculoskeletal system.. .


  1. b) 22-year-old former athlete Abdi, is under pressure from family commitments and financial strain. He lives in a bedsit not far from his parents. Since his mother suffers from depression and his 14year old sister had to go through disciplinary procedures at school, Abdi had to give up his athletics training to help his sister and his father to look after his disabled younger brother. Abdi works at a hospital on a 0-hour contract and claims Universal Credit for housing costs. He also volunteers one hour per week at a playground in a nursery. He would like to become a qualified nursery teacher.

One day an ambulance had to be called, when Abdul suddenly starts to hyperventilate on a crowded bus on his commute to work.

In the ambulance, his Breathing Rate, Blood Pressure , and pulse rate were taken

His breathing rate was 26 breaths per minute his. pulse was 120bpm and his Blood Pressure was 125/61 mmHg.

Upon arrival at A & E, he had an ECG assessment and a blood test.

His heart function was indicative of a healthy heart showing a normal sinus rhythm. All the tests come back negative for any Cardiovascular and Respiratory conditions.

His blood tests did however show reduced potassium levels (hypokalaemia), reduced testosterone and a reduced Red Blood cell count. Due to budget constraints within the NHS a full hormone profile was not complete.

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