Unit 4 discussions

PSY 7710 
 Activity 1

Describe how you would handle the scenario.
Discuss how the scenario meets or violates the specific ethics code(s).

Scenario 1:
The third-party payers for services are starting to employ behavior analysts to review behavior programs provided by other behavior analysts. While this is better than having psychologists or bean counters reviewing behavior plans, are the behavior analysts who are employed to review the plans unethical because they are making decisions about services without observing the client, reviewing data, and so forth (Bailey & Burch, 2016, p. 347)?

Activity 2- Reply to your classmate’s post below
 

1 day agoKarissa Milano unit 4 discussion Scenario 3COLLAPSE
The ethics code 3.0 assessing behavior is very crucial for behavior analysts to conduct prior to suggesting and implement behavior programs (Bailey & Burch, 2016). I worked for an outside agency that went into school districts to provide ABA services to clients who need it. My BCBA at the time put me on a new client who had very aggressive behaviors. The BCBA at the time violated ethical code number 3.01 section A. My BCBA did not conduct a functional assessment prior to developing behavior change treatments for my new client (Bailey & Burch, 2016). At first, I had no clue that my BCBA did not conduct a functional assessment.  I went into the middle school to review my client’s behavior plan, IEP, DTI binder and school schedule before meeting my new client. After meeting my client, I soon came to the conclusion that the BCBA did not assess my client because the work was too easy for my client. My client was able to tact and mand for items, answer intraverbals, answer yes and no questions.  My client also exhibited many other concerning behaviors that were not in the treatment plan such as screaming, darting and yelling. The screaming and yelling prohibited my client from being in class. I told the BCBA about my clients other behavior and she basically told me that she was quitting the job and that I needed to figure it out. The BCBA also told me that she did not conduct an FBA on the client because she was too busy. The BCBA told me she wrote the treatment plan based off what the special education teacher told her. This was the same company that I discussed in the unit one discussion post. This was another reason why I decided to quit. If I were the BCBA on this case, I would either conduct an assessment for my client or if I could not handle it I would drop the case so another BCBA who has time can take over. It is important for the BCBA to do what is best for every client they provide ABA services to.  If I did not have time to take on another case I would say something and make sure another BCBA who has time can take the case.
Reference
Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2016). Ethics for behavior analysts (3rd ed.). Routledge.

PSY7711
Activity 1  
Validity, Accuracy, and Reliability
Consider ways you have encountered to improve and assess the quality of behavioral measurement. What is the importance of validity, accuracy, and reliability in behavioral measurement? What procedures can be used to minimize the threats to the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement? Please discuss at least two procedures.
Then consider the following: According to the Professional and Ethical Compliance Code for Behavior Analysts, behavior analysts need to consider environmental constraints when selecting interventions. Which ethics code(s) pertains to validity, accuracy, and reliability and how will you handle environmental constraints as a behavior analyst?

Activity 2- Reply to both of your classmate’s posts below.
 Jasmin Clark U4 D1COLLAPSE
Measurement is a very important part of behavior analysis. Accuracy, Reliability, and Validity are important factors in accessing the quality of behavior measurements. Accuracy is the extent that the observed values match the true values (Cooper, et al., 2020). Reliability refers to the consistency of agreement and the extent to which two people agree on the results and measures used. Validity is the extent to which the data that was obtained is relevant to the target behavior (Cooper, et al., 2020). Making sure these characteristics are trustworthy is very important to the outcome of the data. It helps make sure the measurements used and seen are correct and beneficial. One threat that can be a problem is a poorly defined measurement system. This can cause problems in the long run with validity because with poorly defined measurement systems, we can end up not measuring what we actually intended to measure. For example, in a child with autism who exhibits the behaviors of hand flapping, head butting, and stomping of the foot, creating a system of tally marks along with a time interval for a time duration of each event as it occurs would mean each of these behaviors would be missed in the recording process as the recorder would have to look away multiple times to record each moment and length of time for each behavior that occurred over a given period. To prevent an error like this, it would be easier to record each behavior at separate occurrences for separate intervals of time. An example would be: tally marks or hand counter clicks for hand flapping in a 20-minute time interval. A 20- minute preset alarm can be used to be hands-free for the observer using the hand counter. The other 2 behaviors could be counted in a similar fashion with counter and timer reset in between. Another threat can be inadequate training. Does the observer know and understand what they are observing? If not, this can cause problems in the way the behavior is measured. To fix this problem it is imperative that everyone involved is heavily trained and well versed in what they are measuring. The ethical code that refers to this would be Section A of code 2.09 Treatment/Intervention Efficacy. This code states how clients have the right to effective treatment and the effective treatment procedures have been validated as having both long and short term benefits to the clients (BACB, 2014). 
Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2014). Professional and ethical compliance code for behavior analysts. Retrieved April 14, 2021, from https://www.bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/BACB-Compliance-Code-english_190318.pdf
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Pearson Education

 

1 day agoSophia Augedahl Unit 4 DiscussionCOLLAPSE
Measurement is the foundation of ABA and is utilized to detect and compare socially significant behaviors (Cooper et al., 2020). Measurement should be frequent and direct and is the process of giving quantitative labels to collected data (Cooper et al., 2020). Cooper et al. (2020) states that measurement allows professional practitioners to verify and validate treatments that are based on evidence. What merit and quality would the evidence have it were not valid, accurate or reliable? Practitioners use evidence-based interventions that have proven effectiveness, ensuring that the data measured is valid, accurate, and reliable (Cooper et al., 2020). It is critical that behavioral measurements incorporate these three concepts because the data collected is utilized to make treatment and programming decisions. Measurement has validity when the data reflects the reason or intention behind the measure (Cooper et al., 2020). Accuracy of behavioral measurement refers to the observed value and how much it matches the true value (Cooper et al., 2020). Lastly, reliability refers to how consistent a measure is (Cooper et al., 2020). Threats to accurate and reliable behavioral measurement include using a poorly designed measurement system and insufficient observer training (Cooper et al., 2020). One strategy to minimize this threat is the use of automatic data-recording devices or establishing a higher mastery criterion during observation (Cooper et al., 2020). Another procedure to minimize a threat to accuracy and reliability is to attend to the training and selection of observers, as well as providing systematic observation (Cooper et al., 2020). Code 2.09 stating that effective treatment, based on research and literature, should be given, as well as procedures that have been validated, pertains most to validity, accuracy, and reliability (BACB, 2014). I would handle environmental constraints with the client’s best interests in mind. A behavior analyst must minimize and eliminate constraints that are preventing implementation of a program (BACB, 2014). I might also reach out to other professionals and recommend other assistance for the client if appropriate (BACB, 2014).
References
Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2014). Professional and ethical compliance code for behavior analysts. Retrieved May 3, 2021, from https://www.bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/BACB-Compliance-Code-english_190318.pdf
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Pearson Education

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